Today, on International Day for Biological Diversity, let's take a closer look at the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), and how protecting the rights of Indigenous Peoples also supports Earth’s biodiversity.
The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) was adopted in December 2023 at the United Nations’ COP15 in Montreal, Canada.
The International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity (IIFB), whose caucus represents Indigenous governments and Indigenous non-government organizations, praised the GBF for its strong language on respect for the rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities. The document includes four goals and a series of targets aimed at taking urgent action to halt and reverse biodiversity loss and to protect 30 percent of land and sea area by 2030. Click here to read the IIFB statement following the adoption of the GBF.
Indigenous Peoples’ rights are explicitly mentioned in one of four goals and seven of twenty-three targets in the GBF, as well as in paragraph 8 on considerations for implementation, and in two COP decision paragraphs.
The IIFB was instrumental in pushing for inclusion of language protecting the rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities.
- Paragraph 4: “Urges Parties and other Governments, with the support of intergovernmental and other organizations, as appropriate, to implement the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), and, in particular, to enable participation at all levels of government, with a view to fostering the full and effective contributions of women, youth, indigenous peoples and local communities…”
- Paragraph 6: “Reaffirms its expectation that Parties and other Governments will ensure that the rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities are respected and given effect” in the GBF.
The Global Biodiversity Framework notes the important roles and contributions of Indigenous Peoples and local communities as custodians of biodiversity and partners in its conservation, restoration and sustainable use.
Since its adoption, the IIFB notes that implementation must ensure:
- That the rights, knowledge, including traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity, innovations, worldviews, values and practices of Indigenous Peoples and local communities (IPLCs) are respected, documented, and preserved
- The free, prior and informed consent of IPLCs through their full and effective participation in decision-making, in accordance with relevant national legislation, international instruments, including the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and human rights law.
“There needs to be recognition that, for Indigenous Peoples who have great respect for territory, their presence doesn't destroy – it enhances an area and therefore the rights of Indigenous People should be respected in the process of doing conservation.” – Jennifer Tauli Corpuz (Kankana-ey Igorot), Nia Tero
Here are the targets in which Indigenous rights are explicitly included in the Global Biodiversity Framework:
- Target 1: Notes that efforts to reduce threats to biodiversity "respect the rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities.”
- Target 3: Also known as 30x30, Target 3 explains that by 2030 at least 30% of lands and waters be protected “recognizing Indigenous and traditional territories” and “respecting the rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities, including over their traditional territories.”
- Target 5: In addressing overexploitation, this target also includes language about “respecting and protecting customary sustainable use by Indigenous Peoples and local communities.”
- Target 9: Affirms the sustainable use of wild species, noting that must protect and encourage “customary sustainable use by Indigenous Peoples and local communities.”
- Target 19: Considers financial resources for implementation and includes verbiage about enhancing the role of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities, Mother Earth-centric actions and traditional approaches.
- Target 21: Calls for biodiversity-inclusive decision-making by which includes the knowledge and contributions of Indigenous Peoples and local communities - accessed only with their free, prior and informed consent.
- Target 22: This section on rights states that the implementation of the GBF must “Ensure the full, equitable, inclusive, effective and gender-responsive representation and participation in decision-making, and access to justice and information related to biodiversity by Indigenous Peoples and local communities, respecting their cultures and their rights over lands, territories, resources, and traditional knowledge, as well as by women and girls, children and youth, and persons with disabilities and ensure the full protection of environmental human rights defenders.”
For More Information:
- Visit the International Indigenous Forum on Biological Diversity’s website for the latest updates: https://iifb-indigenous.org/
- Learn more about our Policy initiatives and how the use of traditional Indigenous knowledge is paramount to reversing biodiversity loss across the planet: https://www.niatero.org/storie...